Tag Archives: English Grammar

Adjective in English Grammar

Adjective in English Grammar

Adjective is a part of speech that defines a characteristic of an object or concept. Adjectives usually answer the question ‘what kind of?’.

Example:

black; big; lazy; old.

Adverb is a part of speech describing character or circumstances of an action. Adverbs usually answer the questions ‘how? in what way? when? where?’, etc.

Example:

simply; very; slowly; lately; fast.

Some English adjectives and adverbs do not differ in their form. The same word ‘fast’ can be an adjective or an adverb depending on whether it modifies a noun or a verb.

Example:

This is a fast car. The car goes fast.

Since adjectives and adverbs function as modifiers to other parts of speech, they are often treated together as a group of modifiers.

 

 

English adjectives have neither gender, nor number, nor case. The same adjective can be used with any form of a noun.

Example:

I put on an old hat. The old man’s shoes wore through. Many old buildings surround the park.

Adverbs, too, are unchangeable.

 

Uncountable and collective nouns

Uncountable and collective nouns

Uncountable nouns

Any language has nouns identifying materials and abstract concepts that cannot be counted. Uncountable nouns have only one form: either singular, or plural.

Example:

English nouns that only have a singular form:
sugar; bread; love; information; advice; knowledge; progress; money.
Pay special attention to singular nouns that are constructed as plurals: news, politics, physics, phonetics, etc. They must always be used with the singular form of a verb: The news was exciting. Physics doesn’t interest me.

English nouns that only have a plural form:
goods; clothes; riches; contents; savings; bowels; whereabouts; surroundings.
To refer to a portion or to many instances of objects designated by uncountable nouns lexical means are used.

Example:

They sell many brands of sugar but few other goods. We gathered a great deal of information. She gave me a good piece of advice. He donated a portion of his savings.

Collective nouns

Collective nouns designate groups of animate objects: family, audience, crew, team, group, army, party, crowd, staff, board, herd, flock. In English, a collective noun can be used, without changing its singular form, to refer either to the group as a whole or to individuals comprising the group. As a sentence subject, such a noun agrees with the singular or plural form of a verb, depending on usage.

Example:

The team has performed excellent.> The team were talking to reporters. My family is large.> My family are having dinner.

Exceptions:

The nouns police, people, and cattle are always used with a verb in plural.

 

 

Plural Noun

 

Plural Noun

Nouns refer to objects and concepts that either can or cannot be counted. Accordingly, only the so-called countable nouns can have a plural form. The plural of countable nouns in English is formed by adding to their singular form the suffix -s or -es, which is pronounced [z] after vowels and voiced consonants (days, dogs), [s] after voiceless consonants (books), and [iz] after -s, -sh, -ch, -x, -z (horses, watches, boxes). The variant -es is used when the singular form of a word ends in -s, -sh, -ch, -x, -z, or -o with a preceding consonant.

Example:

table> tables; sea> seas; John> Johns; wish> wishes; potato> potatoes. Also note the spelling changes fe> ve, consonant+y> ie: knife> knives; city> cities.

Exceptions:

Plural of the following English nouns is non-standard: man> men; woman> women; foot> feet; tooth> teeth; mouse> mice; child> children; louse> lice; goose> geese; ox> oxen. Some nouns borrowed from Greek and Latin have a special plural form: basis> bases; crisis> crises; phenomenon> phenomena; datum> data; stimulus> stimuli; cactus> cacti. The following nouns have the same form in singular and plural: (this/these) fish, sheep, swine, deer, craft, means, works, headquarters. Manywidely used nouns designating symmetrical objects have only a plural form: trousers, pants, shorts, jeans, trunks, braces, scissors, tongs, scales, glasses, spectacles.

Case

Just like singular nouns, plural nouns also have the possessive case, which is formed by appending an apostrophe to the regular plural suffix -s (pronunciation is not changed) or by using the possessive ending -‘s with non-standard plural forms.

Example:

doctors’ offices; knives’ blades; children’s play, these fish’s migration.