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IELTS Avoid Language Bias

IELTS Avoid Language Bias

Suggestions for avoiding language that reinforces stereotypes or excludes certain
groups of people.


Sexism
Race Ethnicity, and National Origin
Age
Sexual Orientation
Depersonalization of Persons with Disabilities or Illnesses
Patronizing or Demeaning Expressions
Language That Excludes or Unnecessarily Emphasizes Differences


Sexism
Sexism is the most difficult bias to avoid, in part because of the convention of using man or
men and he or his to refer to people of either sex. Other, more disrespectful conventions
include giving descriptions of women in terms of age and appearance while describing men
in terms of accomplishment.
Avoid This        Use This Instead
mankind,           human beings, humans,
man                   humankind, humanity, people,
society, men and women
man-made         synthetic, artificial
man in the street    average person, ordinary person

Using gender-neutral terms for occupations, positions, roles, etc.
Terms that specify a particular sex can unnecessarily perpetuate certain stereotypes when
used generically.
Avoid This          Use This Instead
anchorman        anchor
bellman,            bellboy
bellhop
businessman      businessperson, executive, manager, business owner, retailer, etc.
chairman chair,  chairperson
cleaning lady,     housecleaner, housekeeper, cleaning person, office cleaner
girl, maid
clergyman member of the clergy, rabbi, priest, etc.

clergymen          the clergy
congressman      representative, member of Congress, legislator

Race, Ethnicity, and National Origin
Some words and phrases that refer to racial and ethnic groups are clearly offensive. Other
words (e.g., Oriental, colored) are outdated or inaccurate. Hispanic is generally accepted
as a broad term for Spanish-speaking people of the Western Hemisphere, but more
specific terms (Latino, Mexican American) are also acceptable and in some cases
preferred.
Avoid This         Use This Instead
Negro,
colored,               black, African-American (generally preferred to Afro-American)
Afro-American
Oriental,             Asian or more specific designation such as Pacific Islander, Chinese
Asiatic                American, Korean Indian Indian properly refers to people who live in or                                 come from India. American Indian, Native American, and more specific                                 designations (Chinook, Hopi) are usually preferred when referring to the                               native peoples of the Western hemisphere.

Eskimo                Inuit, Alaska Natives

native (n.)          native peoples, early inhabitants, aboriginal peoples (but not aborigines)

Age
The concept of aging is changing as people are living longer and more active lives. Be
aware of word choices that reinforce stereotypes (decrepit, senile) and avoid mentioning
age unless it is relevant.
Avoid This                        Use This Instead

elderly, aged,                     older person, senior citizen(s), older people, seniors
old, geriatric,
the elderly,
the aged

Sexual Orientation
The term homosexual to describe a man or woman is increasingly replaced by the terms
gay for men and lesbian for women. Homosexual as a noun is sometimes used only in
reference to a male. Among homosexuals, certain terms (such as queer and dyke) that are
usually considered offensive have been gaining currency in recent years. However, it is still
prudent to avoid these terms in standard contexts.

 

Avoiding Depersonalization of Persons with Disabilities or Illnesses

Terminology that emphasizes the person rather than the disability is generally preferred.
Handicap is used to refer to the environmental barrier that affects the person. (Stairs
handicap a person who uses a wheelchair.) While words such as crazy, demented, and
insane are used in facetious or informal contexts, these terms are not used to describe
people with clinical diagnoses of mental illness. The euphemisms challenged, differently
abled, and special are preferred by some people, but are often ridiculed and are best
avoided.

Avoid This                    Use This Instead

Mongoloid                      person with Down syndrome

wheelchair-bound          person who uses a wheelchair

Avoiding Patronizing or Demeaning Expressions
These are expressions which can offend, regardless of intention. References to age, sex,
religion, race, and the like should only be included if they are relevant.
Avoid This                      Use This Instead
girls (when                        women
referring to adult
women), the fair
sex

Common connective words to be used

Common connective words to be used

While taking this test, many non native english speakers do not properly join 2 small
sentences. The proper use of connectives mentioned below will be helpful. Try to use
them in your sentences.

Familiarity with these words would be useful in all IELTS test modules.
Common connective words indicating:

 


Common connective words to be used

How to Speak English Fluently?

How to Speak English Fluently?

Fluency comes with practice. You cannot study every “How to speak English” book and
expect to be fluent in the language. Practice is a must! Also, if you think you read well
and so you must be fluent as well, you are mistaken! Reading and speaking are very
different.

The thing with leaning English is that you need not concentrate on the grammar while
speaking. Concentrate on conversing. English is a weird language with a lot of
loopholes.
Practice
Practicing speaking in English is a must. You cannot learn how to speak fluently
otherwise. The reason for this is the slang that has infiltrated the language and also the
utter lack of regard for grammatical rules while speaking. However, if one starts using
correct grammar, by the book, English would sound extremely weird.
Small talk
Learn how to begin a conversation. This will also grow your confidence. While
standing in line, ask the person in front or behind you a simple question such as ‘What
time is it?’ Try continuing with the conversation. If you have trouble understanding the
person, politely ask them to repeat what they said. Normally, people say “I’m sorry?”
but you could also say “Pardon”.
Confidence
Practicing English speech will require confidence. During a social gathering, start small
conversations. Do not hesitate to ask the person to repeat him or herself. If you do not
understand the meaning of a particular word or phrase, ask them to clarify. Chances are
they know you are in the learning process and would gladly help. Do not think that you
can go home and open Google translations and type in the word or phrase they used.
This does not work! Also, do not feel embarrassed when somebody corrects you. You
could also go to a karaoke bar!
Listen
Reading and speaking is not enough. Listen to how people speak, the pronunciations,
and the way words are use. Watch T.V., listen to songs etc. This way you are listening
to other people speak and observe how they pronounce the words.
Read books
Read novels. Concentrate on the formation of the sentences. Novels have dialogues, a
conversation between two people that you can use to your advantage. Notice how
people speak. They do not pay attention to the grammar as much as they do to talking.
Also, when you are reading, mark every unusual phrase or word and find out what it
means. Incorporate new words into your vocabulary.

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Four components essential to learning English

Four components essential to learning English

1. Phonetics
Phonetics is a branch related to sound. Phonology is a branch related to the systematic
organization of sounds in the English language.Phoneme is the smallest unit making up a
language. The English language consists of 41 phonemes. Phonemes combine to make up
words and syllables. According to Wikipedia a phoneme can be described as “The
smallest contrastive linguistic unit that may bring about a change of meaning”. Phonics is
the method of teaching people to recognize different sounds.
2. Reading fluency
Fluency is the ability to read and speak without stopping. This means not looking at each
word and trying to figure out how to read it. It should be accurate and precise.
3. Vocabulary development
Vocabulary is the body of words in any language. It is also the individual knowledge of
words and their meanings and pronunciations. It is important to develop your
vocabulary skills while learning a language. Of course, you are not expected to go
through a dictionary in one day; it is a slow process.
4. Oral skills
Oral skills are is your ability to speak a language fluently. This requires correct
pronunciations and the use of Grammar. Without development oral skills, learning a
language would be utterly useless.

 

Will Germany Declare War On Iran?

Will Germany Declare War On Iran?

With the “Hitler-like” rhetoric coming from Iran’s president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and his denial of the Jewish holocaust seems to have German chancellor Angela Merkel screaming for action.

For the first time since German reunification Germany is truly a world player again. With one of the largest militaries in Europe with about 76,200 air force personnel, 221,000 armed forces personnel, 230,600 army personnel, 26,700 navy personnel, 2,300 tanks, and some of the most advanced aircraft in the world in the modern German Luftwaffe Germany is truly “loaded for bear”.

Chancellor Angela Merkel likened hard-line Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to Adolf Hitler in April of 2006, saying the world must act now to stop him before his country developed a nuclear bomb. “We want, we must prevent Iran from developing its nuclear program further,” Merkel told top policymakers from around the world in a speech to the annual Munich security conference. Referring to the rise of Hitler in the 1930s, Merkel added: “Now we see that there were times when we could have acted differently. For that reason Germany is obliged … to make clear (to Iran) what is permissible and what isn’t.” “Iran has blatantly crossed the red line,” Merkel said. “I say it as German chancellor. A president that questions Israel’s right to exist, a president that denies the Holocaust, cannot expect to receive any tolerance from Germany.”

In addition to the nuclear dilemma, Iran is considered to be one of the biggest state sponsors of terrorism. And now with the escalating conflict between Israel and Hezbollah, Iran along with Syria are being called “the puppet masters” pulling the strings of Hezbollah and is accused of supplying rockets and arms to the terrorist organization.

Unfortunately, Germany seems to also realize that Iran’s missile capability may also threaten the German homeland it’s self in addition to Israel. It is accepted belief that Iran currently has the capability to not only reach Israel, but major sections of Europe including Germany. With rapid development of the Shahab-3 MRBM with a range of 1300 km it’s almost a shoe in that Iran could indeed reach Germany soon if in fact they could not already. Even more disturbing is The Rumsfeld Commission further reported that Iran has the technical capability to test an ICBM-range missile capable of hitting the United States: “A 10,000 km-range Iranian missile could hold the U.S. at risk in an arc extending northeast of a line from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to St. Paul, Minnesota.”

The United States, Britain, Germany and France have made it clear in June they want an answer from Iran by the July 15-17 summit of the Group of Eight (G8) nations in St. Petersburg, Russia.

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