Numeral in part of speech
Numeral is a part of speech that describes number of objects or their sequence when they are counted. Numerals have features of both nouns (answer the question ‘how many?’) and adjectives (answer the question ‘which?’). Accordingly, there are two types of numerals: cardinal and ordinal. They can be simple, derivative, complex, and fractional.
one, two, three (simple cardinal numerals); first, second, third, fifth (simple ordinal numerals); thirteen, twenty (derivative cardinal numerals); forty-seven, one hundred ninety-six (complex cardinal numerals); two thousand four hundred eighty-sixth (complex ordinal numeral); one third, two fifths, eight seventeenths = 1/3, 2/5, 8/17 (fractions).
Cardinal numerals answer the question ‘how many?’. Numerals from ‘one’ to ‘twelve’, as well as ‘hundred, thousand, million, billion’, are fixed words. Numerals from 13 to 19 are derived from corresponding simple ones by adding the suffix -teen (some stems are modified): thirteen = 13; fourteen = 14; fifteen = 15; sixteen = 16; seventeen = 17; eighteen = 18; nineteen = 19. The numerals that are multiples of 10 are formed by addition of the suffix -ty to the number of tens, with occasional modifications: twenty = 20; thirty = 30; forty = 40; fifty = 50; sixty = 60; seventy = 70; eighty = 80; ninety = 90.
Complex numerals are formed by putting the first two described types together in order from left to right (tens and units are written with a hyphen). The words ‘hundred, thousand, million, billion’, etc., are always used in the singular form.
one hundred twenty-five = 125; five hundred seventy-two = 572; two thousand six hundred fifty-one = 2,651; three million four hundred ninety-six thousand seven hundred eighty-three = 3,496,783.
Ordinal numerals describe the order of countable objects. They answer the question ‘which?’. Usually, they are preceded by the definite article.
the first, the second, the third, the fourth, the fifth, the sixth, the seventh, the eighth, etc.
As you can see from the examples above, except for the first three numbers, English ordinal numerals are formed from the cardinal ones by addition of the suffix -th. In numerals ‘five’ and ‘twelve’ -ve is changed to -f: the fifth, the twelfth. In the numerals ‘eight, nine’ the last letter is dropped: the eighth, the ninth. In ordinal numerals that are multiples of 10 the last -y is changed to -ie: thirty + ‘th’ = thirtieth, fifty + ‘th’ = fiftieth, etc. In complex ordinal numerals only the last component is ordinal in form: two hundred eighty-seventh = 287th; one thousand five hundred sixty-first = 1561st; seventy-ninth = 79th.
In the United States a point is used as decimal separator in writing: 1.5 = one point five or one and a half; 2.45 = two point forty-five or two point four five; 134.706 = one hundred thirty-four point seven ou six, etc.
Simple fractions are formed by two words: the nominator is cardinal number; the denominator is ordinal number.
6/7 = six sevenths; 2/5 = two fifths; 23/56 = twenty-three fifty-sixths; 1/2 = one half (this is an exception); 4 2/3 = four and two thirds. To designate percentage, the word ‘percent’ is used always in its singular form: 5% = five percent; 1% = one percent; 47% = forty-seven percent.
In American English the order in writing and reading dates is different from that in Europe. First comes month, then date, concluding with year. The date is an ordinal numeral, the year – a cardinal numeral read in a special way (see examples); the word ‘year’ is not used.
August 24th, 1995 (August twenty-fourth, nineteen ninety-five); June 2nd (June second); January 1st, 1934 (January first, nineteen thirty-four); November 11th, 1918 (November eleventh, nineteen eighteen). Decades are cardinal numerals in plural, used with the definite article: the 60s (the sixties); the 1920s (the nineteen twenties); the 1890s (the eighteen nineties).
Numeral in part of speech,Numeral,Fractions,Ordinal numerals,Cardinal numerals